Osservatorio Astronomico – L’Unisa è pronta a guardar le stelle

L’astrofisica e l’astronomia sono le branche della scienza che più di tutte, negli ultimi anni, hanno riscosso successo tra l’opinione pubblica, attirando verso di sé sempre più curiosi e affascinati. Il motivo non è affatto di difficile intuizione. Ci troviamo, infatti, nell’epoca d’oro delle scoperte astronomiche, miranti tutte a segnare questo secolo come quello che ha saputo raggiungere i confini più lontani del nostro Sistema Solare e ad affacciarsi persino oltre.

L’Università degli Studi di Salerno, come è ormai noto, ha sposato una politica volta allo sviluppo e al miglioramento qualitativo innanzitutto degli istituti scientifici presenti nel campus, e proprio sul tema scientifico di maggior risalto, che è quello volto allo studio intenso dell’universo, si sta impegnando a non sfigurare e a restare al passo con il progresso del mondo accademico e della ricerca. Negli ultimi anni ha perciò lavorato alla costruzione di un Osservatorio, sito all’ultimo piano dell’edificio F – Dipartimento di Fisica, inaugurato ieri pomeriggio per la prima volta dopo l’installazione di un nuovo sofisticato telescopio. La struttura, nata grazie alla volontà e all’ingegno del Prof. Emerito Gaetano Scarpetta, è in funzione dal 2010 attraverso la messa in opera di un telescopio  Celestron C14.

telescopio
Telescopio e Interno dell’Osservatorio

Nel 2015 L’Università è riuscita ad accaparrarsi i fondi POR-FESR della Regione Campania, con i quali è stato possibile attrezzare l’Osservatorio con un avanzato mezzo di monitoraggio, il Ritchey-Chrétien, affiancato all’innovativa CCD Finger Lakes. I due, insieme, costituiscono il telescopio più grande ospitato da un ateneo italiano. A tale primato va ad aggiungersi quello della cupola più grande: rivestita, come c’era da aspettarsi, di nero all’interno e di bianco all’esterno con un’apertura piuttosto grande e conforme alle dimensioni del telescopio.

Sul tetto di uno dei tanti dipartimenti dell’UniSa, è, dunque, posizionato l’Osservatorio che si è posto come obiettivo il monitoraggio e lo studio dei pianeti e dei corpi celesti situati al di fuori del Sistema Solare. La struttura svolgerà funzioni di didattica, ricerca e divulgazione. La prima sarà garantita attraverso lezioni e osservazioni di galassie, pianeti e di fisica stellare che avverranno permettendo agli studenti di utilizzare e di imparare la strumentazione necessaria e i meccanismi di gestione e di analisi dei dati. Alcuni di loro, tra quelli iscritti al Laboratorio Specialistico della Laurea Magistrale in Fisica a cui l’Osservatorio è legato, potranno persino redigere tesi di laurea sugli studi lì intrapresi. La Ricerca, come già accennato prima, è diretta allo studio di sistemi extrasolari, ossia di pianeti, come la nostra Terra, che ruotano e articolano la loro esistenza attorno ad una stella, come il nostro Sole. I metodi annoverati sono quelli del microlensing e dei transiti, che hanno condotto l’Osservatorio a rientrare nel team scientifico del satellite WFIRST che la Nasa lancerà tra otto anni. Tutto il materiale prodotto in dodici mesi di ricerca verrà poi divulgato dall’Osservatorio attraverso l’organizzazione di sei serate distribuite nell’arco di un anno, a cui tutti potranno partecipare fino ad un massimo di trentacinque persone ad in contro. La prenotazione è obbligatoria, e a tal fine è indispensabile parlarne con il Responsabile della Struttura, Valerio Bozza.

L’ospite d’onore della giornata di ieri è stato Umberto Guidoni, astrofisico, astronauta, scrittore italiano con un’esperienza in politica conclusasi definitivamente nel 2013. Le sue parole, i suoi messaggi, erano interamente rivolti agli studenti lì presenti e in generale alla generazione che attualmente si trova ad affrontare gli anni universitari. E ciò non era affatto un modo per essere formalmente gentile o speranzoso, ma, tutt’altro, era, sulla base della sua esperienza da uomo di scienze e di spazio, l’intuizione che di lì a poco l’umanità avrebbe compiuto dei salti inimmaginabili fino a poco tempo fa. La scoperta di un pianeta gemello a quello della terra, Proxima b, in orbita alla stella più vicina a noi, Proxima Centauri, ha infatti non solo entusiasmato il mondo scientifico astronomico e astrofisico, ma ha condotto ad una corsa, ad un’accelerazione dei processi di ricerca.

Tra i progetti che l’entusiasmo ha prodotto vi è quello di una sonda in grado di viaggiare nello spazio con una velocità pari al 20% di quella della luce, che le permetta di raggiungere Alfa Centauri, il Sistema che contiene Proxima Centauri e Proxima b, entro circa venti anni. Essendo questo distante da noi quattro anni luce, è evidente il lancio progressistico del progetto, che comporterebbe qualcosa di molto più grande della mera scoperta scientifica. L’uomo riuscirebbe, così, a fotografare e a studiare le caratteristiche di un pianeta che potenzialmente potrebbe ospitare la vita. E persino rispondere ad un quesito, quello che ci chiede se siamo soli o meno nell’universo, che non è mai stato solo ed unicamente scientifico, ma che è innanzitutto filosofico e antico quanto l’esistenza dell’uomo stesso. E nella possibilità che l’umanità si addentri in una storia del tutto nuova, l’Osservatorio dell’Università di Salerno ha la possibilità di prendere parte agli studi che potrebbero condurci tra le scoperte più ambiziose e lodevoli degli ultimi tempi.

Antonella Tanya Maiorino

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