La tregua del 1914 e le guerre di oggi

Oggi, sulle bacheche dei grandi social network, sulle pagine di molti blog, vedremo comparire immagini della famosa “Tregua di Natale” del 1914. Scene di soldati di tutte le nazionalità coinvolte nella guerra che si riuniscono, scavalcando le trincee, per festeggiare insieme, stringersi la mano, giocare a pallone, per rigenerare insomma un senso di umanità imbestialito dalle temperie di quegli anni. Le cronache sull’evento sono ricche, così come lo sono anche i miti e le testimonianze infondate. Inoltre, episodi di tregue ufficiose o di incontri solidali tra militari di eserciti avversari non erano affatto estranei nei teatri della Grande Guerra, e si verificarono in diverse altre occasioni. Tuttavia nessuno, sembra, ebbe la stessa portata.  Ecco come il Natale del 1914 divenne un simbolo.

La tregua di Natale del 1914 e l'umanità in guerra

A ben pensarci, quello che è più apprezzabile di quelle foto e dell’evento che rievocano è proprio l’unicità, la fragilità, la piccolezza di quella iniziativa, che comunque era ben poca cosa di fronte alle atrocità che si consumeranno negli anni successivi. Eppure, quella piccolezza era spontanea, autentica, concreta. Non era una pace, che in tempi drammatici è una speranza dai contorni troppo vaghi. Era una tregua, un lasso di tempo limitato in cui l’uomo, di slancio, rinnega la propria vocazione alla violenza, e compie un’azione reale per tornare a essere qualcosa di diverso. Atti del genere vennero poi condannati dagli ufficiali più intransigenti, criticati dai giornali della propaganda, e non ottennero sostanzialmente alcun effetto su un conflitto che non aveva ancora raggiunto l’apice della ferocia. Eppure, essi continuarono a verificarsi per tutto il mese di dicembre e in diverse zone del fronte occidentale, raramente con l’autorizzazione delle élites militari. Non serve aggiungere altro, perché la retorica sull’evento è già vasta e la Tregua è già stata ripetutamente utilizzata in libri, film e anche in spot commerciali. Ma sulla tregua come “pratica”, come atto che accompagna ogni antagonismo, come momento di sospensione di qualsiasi genere di ostilità (di cui, come sappiamo, esistono molti generi), non è possibile alcuna ridondanza. La tregua è un qualcosa di più urgente, e decisamente di meno equivocabile, della pace, il che la rende forse più sacra. È un terreno più instabile, su cui difficilmente si può costruire qualcosa di fittizio.

Oggi, parlare di pace è ancora un affare complesso, e sarebbe complicato stabilire se lo sia più o meno di allora. Di tregue, invece, se ne dovrebbero attuare di più. In teatri come quello della Siria, o sui nostri spazi sul web, dove promuoviamo la guerra con troppa disinvoltura, spesso contro nemici che non sappiamo nemmeno identificare. La tregua è un momento in cui l’uomo guarda ai disastri che sono stati prodotti, e ha il tempo per spaventarsi, inorridire, e desiderare qualcosa di diverso.

 

Albio Scuotilancia

Lettera dal fronte: la guerra è nella testa

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